Nails anatomy

A nail is a layer of hard substance - keratin. It grows with the speed of 1/8 - 1/4 inches (1 inch equals 2.5 cm) a month depending on the person's age and health condition. Nails don't breath. The nail-bed is filled with blood rich in oxygen thanks to the capillary system that is well-developed.

Nails don't evaporate moisture.

Nails don't need vitamins and minerals as they consist of dead protein and that's why they can't grow faster with the help of these substances.

Nails are the firm surface that helps to protect gentle and sensitive finger endings. The nail growth starts in matrix, the tissue that is the nail base. Matrix is the cell layer in the area where skin cells separate from nail plate. The matrix damage causes nail deformation and sometimes can even stop nails from growing. The nail starts from nail root that is situated under skin. Nail root and matrix are protected with "nail folding" that is a a skin folding at the nail base. Above it there is a white formation in the shape of moon called "the moon" that is the continuation of matrix. As in the process of growing the nail continues getting hard above "the moon", it remains soft at the beginning and can easily be damaged.

Nail plate is the dead layer of keratin. In nail matrix you can find keratinocytes (one of the kinds of nail plate cells) that look like a pink area of skin that goes above the "moon". Nail plate is rich in blood capillary through which flows the blood rich in oxygen resulting in healthy pink color of nail-bed. The cuticle firmly connects nail folding with nail plate at the nail base and nail plate with the nail- bed in the area of free nail edge. Cuticle hermetically isolates nail-bed and matrix from air and water.

Nail strength and girth depends on the environmental influence on the nail-bed.


  • "wavy edge" - this is the result of nail damage or nail disease
  • "channels" - this is the result of disease of injured nail cells inside or near matrix
  • "white spots" - are not influenced by the illness.They can occur as the consequence of injuries at the nail base
  • "hypertrophy" - abnormal nail thickness
  • "atrophy" - nails lose their glitter, become thin and stop growing
  • "pterygium" - when cuticle grows on the nail base


You can't do manicure on sick nails.

  • Nail serpigo - is an infectious disease that is caused by fungus.

1.When it's a regular disease, you will see white spots on your nail, that can be easily removed from its surface.

2. When the disease is more serious, white or yellow lines will appear inside a nail. This disease effects the nail edge and goes until its root.

3.The third form of disease effects nail-bed and causes unnatural thinness of upper nail lawyers.

  • Felon's Prionixy - this is infectious inflammatory nail tissue condition that are staggered by bacteria or yield fungus.
  • Onyxitis - this is a pus inflammation of nail matrix caused by infection.

Ingrown nails can be not only on fingers but also on toes. The nail grows into skin folding and that's how it causes infection.

  • Onycholysis - this is when the nail gets weaker but doesn't come apart from the nail-bed. It is often connected with the inner diseases, infection or taking special medicine. This is the most common disease.


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